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How to resolve ‘Apex CPU time limit exceeded’ error in Salesforce?

How to resolve ‘Apex CPU time limit exceeded’ error in Salesforce?

1. About the ‘Apex CPU time limit exceeded’ error

Salesforce has a timeout limit for transactions based on CPU usage. If transactions consume too much CPU time, they will be shut down as a long-running transaction.

CPU Timeout Governor Limit:

  • Synchronous Process: 10 seconds
  • Asynchronous process: 60 seconds

Note: If you started getting ‘Apex CPU time limit exceeded’ error in production and if any of your key features are impacted, you can request Salesforce to increase the CPU time limit for few days/weeks which will give you required time to deploy a fix.

1.1. What is counted

  • All Apex code
  • Library functions exposed in Apex
  • Workflow execution

1.2. What is not counted

  • Database operations, e.g. the portion of execution time spent in the database for DML, SOQL, and SOSL
  • Waiting time for Apex callouts
  • SOQL

2. How to reduce CPU timeout?

2.1. Using Map based query

List<Lead> lstacc=[Select Id from Lead limit 2000];
Set<Id> setIds=new Set<Id>();
for(Lead tmpLead:leadList){ //More CPU time for sure due to looping

//Using Map query saves CPU time

//Fetching all Leads in map
Map<Id,Lead> leadMap = new Map<Id,Lead>([Select Id from Lead limit 2000]);

//Creating list of Leads
List<Lead> leadList = leadMap.values() ;

//Creating set of ids

Set<id> leadIdSet = leadMap.keySet() ;

2.2. Asynchronous Processing

CPU time out limit for asynchronous process is 60seconds(6X of synchronous process). If the results of the operation are not required in real time consider moving logic to asynchronous processing.

Asynchronous processing comes in a number of different flavors.

TypeOverviewCommon Scenarios
Future MethodsRun in their own thread, and do not start until resources are available.Web service callout.
Batch ApexRun large jobs that would exceed normal processing limits.Data cleansing or archiving of records.
Queueable ApexSimilar to future methods, but provide additional job chaining and allow more complex data types to be used.Performing sequential processing operations with external Web services.
Scheduled ApexSchedule Apex to run at a specified time.Daily or weekly tasks.
Platform EventsConnect business processes in Salesforce and external apps through the exchange of real-time event dataCommunicate with external systems.
Asynchronous processing types

2.3. Aggregate SOQL

Database time is not calculated in CPU time. Using aggregate SOQL for your business use case will have reduce CPU time.

2.4. Only take necessary data and run a loop

Filter only specific data while doing a for on a list of records.

3. How to debug

You can figure out which code is consuming more time using Analysis Perspective in Developer Console Log Inspector.

You can access it via Debug -> Perspective Manager

Developer Perspective Manager

Select Analysis and Click on Open (The debug log must be open to enable Open button)

Analysis Perspective

Timeline Tab shows which CPU time consumed by Apex Code, Workflow, DB etc..

Execution Overview Timeline Apex CPU time limit exceeded

You can also view the CPU time various methods and SOQL queries.

Apex CPU time limit exceeded Executed Units

Additional Resources


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