MuleSoft Interview Questions & Answers.
Q1. What is Anypoint Platform?
Anypoint Platform is a unified, hybrid integration platform to create a seamless application network of apps, data and devices with API-led connectivity.
Q2. What is Anypoint Exchange?
Anypoint Exchange is a central repository for Assets that can be discovered and reused across projects. Anypoint Exchange provides the benefit of being able to discover, share, and incorporate assets and resources into your applications. Anypoint Exchange helps you create API developer portals, view and test APIs, simulate data to APIs (Mocking Service), create assets, and use API Notebooks to describe and test API functions.
Q3. What is Flow Designer?
Flow Designer us used to build integration applications. It is used to integrate systems into workflows. A project in Flow Designer consists of multiple flows for one Mule Application. A flow consists of a sequence of cards. Each card represents a core component, connector, module or API. Each card receives input data, performs a task using input data, and then sends the output data from that task to the next card in the flow. The final card in a flow sends notification that the Mule application has completed its task.
Q4. What is Mule Runtime?
Mule Runtime, commonly called Mule, or Mule ESB is a lightweight integration runtime engine used to integrate systems, orchestrate web services and configure the runtime environment. Rather than creating multiple point-to-point integrations between systems, services, APIs, and devices, you use Mule to create applications that intelligently manage message routing, data mapping, orchestration, reliability, security, and scalability between nodes.
Q5. What is DataWeave?
DataWeave is a programming language designed by MuleSoft for accessing and transforming data that travels through a Mule application. Mule runtime engine incorporates DataWeave in several core components like Transform and Set Payload, which enable you to execute DataWeave scripts and expressions in your Mule app.
DataWeave scripts act on data in the Mule event. Most commonly, you use it to access and transform data in the message payload. For example, after a component in your Mule app retrieves data from one system, you can use DataWeave to modify and output selected fields in that data to a new data format, then use another component in your app to pass on that data to another system.
Q6. What is a Mule Event?
Mule Event is a data structure used for information processing by the runtime. Mule Events consists of these objects:
- A Mule Message contains a message payload and its associated attributes
- Variables are Mule event metadata that you use in your flow
Q7. What is RAML?
RAML (RESTful API Modeling Language) is a simple, structured way of describing RESTful APIs. RAML files can be used to autogenerate mocked endpoints and interfaces for API implementations. RAML is based on YAML and JSON.
Q8. What is API Designer?
API Designer provides a web-based interface for designing, documenting, testing, and sharing API specifications and fragments.
You can use either the text editor or the visual editor to create API specifications in RESTful API Modeling Language (RAML) or according to OpenAPI specification (OAS)
With the text editor, you can:
- Design according to best practices with a context-aware shelf that auto-populates with the appropriate methods, resources, parameters, and security components
- Include RAML API fragments, such as security schemas and data types, from Exchange or write your own
- Import existing API specifications
With the visual editor, you can:
- Create a specification for use cases in which you do not need to include RAML fragments
- Scaffold a specification that you can complete and customize in the text editor
Q9. What is Anypoint Studio?
Anypoint Studio is an Eclipse based IDE used to build Mule applications. Some of the key features of Anypoint Studio are:
- It allows to run Mule application inside a local runtime.
- It offers visual editors to configure API specification.
- You can push changes to running app for testing.
- Deploy applications to CloudHub.
Q10. What is CloudHub?
CloudHub is an integration platform as a service (iPaaS) where you can deploy integration applications in the cloud, create new APIs on top of existing data sources, integrate on-premises applications with cloud services.
Q11. What are the options of deploying MuleSoft applications?
- Cloud Hub – MuleSoft Hosted Environment
- Customer Hosted Mule Runtime – On Cloud service providers such as Azure, AWS
- Anypoint Runtime Fabric – On premise – Customer hosted
Q 12. What is API proxy?
An application that controls access to a web service, restricting access via use of an API gateway
You can use API proxies:
- If your API is live, but not yet hosted in a Mule runtime engine (Mule) server
- If you already have a Mule application, which is closed-code, but don’t have access to include autodiscovery for it
- If you want to perform schema validation on every incoming request for a RAML, OAS, or SOAP API
Depending on the type of specification you used to create your API, you can apply one of the following API proxies:
Q13. What is API Gateway Runtime?
The API Gateway Runtime controls access to APIs by enforcing policies.
API Gateway allows you to add a dedicated orchestration layer on top of your backend APIs and services to help you separate orchestration from implementation concerns. You can leverage the governance capabilities of API Manager to apply, among other capabilities, throttling, security, caching, and logging to your APIs.
Q14. What are some of the key uses of API Manager?
API Manager can be used to :
- Approve, revoke or reject access to APIs
- Promote managed APIs between environment
- Review API Analytics
- Create API Proxies
- Deploy API Proxies
Q 15. What is DataSense?
DataSense is a feature of Anypoint Studio that uses Mule event metadata to help you design applications. Rather than forcing you to manually discover this metadata, Anypoint Studio automatically acquires it so that you can map or use this data in your application. It helps you to discover info about data and facilitates transformations by providing DataWeave expected input or output.
Q16. Explain Anypoint Connectors.
Anypoint Connectors are reusable extensions to Mule runtime engine (Mule) that enable you to integrate a Mule app with third-party APIs, databases, and standard integration protocols. Connectors abstract the technical details involved with connecting to a target system. All connectivity in Mule 4 is provided through connectors.
Using connectors in a Mule app provides the following advantages:
- Reduces code complexity, because you can connect a Mule app to a target system without knowing all of the details required to program to the target system
- Simplifies authenticating against the target system
- Proactively infers metadata for the target system, which makes it easier to identify and transform data with DataWeave
- Makes code maintenance easier because:
- Not all changes in the target system require changes to the app.
- The connector configuration can be updated without requiring updates to other parts of the app.
Q17. Explain Anypoint Design Center.
Anypoint Design Center is a development environment that consists of two tools:
- API Designer – In API Designer, you can create API specifications in RESTful API Modeling Language (RAML) or according to OpenAPI specification (OAS). You can also create API fragments in RAML. After you create a specification or fragment, you can publish it to Anypoint Exchange, so that it can be used by anyone in your MuleSoft organization
- Flow Designer – In Flow Designer, you create Mule applications to integrate systems into workflows
Q18. Explain Anypoint Data Gateway.
Anypoint Data Gateway allows you to easily integrate data stored in legacy back-office systems with Salesforce. Data Gateway lets you access your data from within Salesforce itself, using a simple point-and-click visual interface to wield the full functionality of Salesforce on your external data.
Data Gateway supports integration with systems such as SAP, Oracle, MS SQL, MySQL, and others. Connecting to these systems is instantaneous – just fill in the parameters such as host, user, etc., and you’re done. The ability to quickly connect with diverse back-office systems eliminates the need to create separate design environments, or to implement extensive training for Salesforce users.
Q19. What is MUnit?
MUnit is a Mule application testing framework that allows you to easily build automated tests for your integrations and APIs. It provides a full suite of integration and unit test capabilities, and is fully integrated with Maven and Surefire for integration with your continuous deployment environment.
With MUnit you can:
- Create your test by writing Mule code
- Mock processors
- Spy any processor
- Verify processor calls
- Enable or ignore particular tests
- Tag tests
- Check visual coverage in Studio
- Generate coverage reports
Q20. Explain Anypoint Runtime Fabric?
Anypoint Runtime Fabric is a container service that allows you to run Mule applications, composite APIs and API gateways across any environment with centralized management via Anypoint Platform.
Some of the capabilities of Anypoint Runtime Fabric include:
- Isolation between applications by running a separate Mule runtime server per application
- Ability to run multiple versions of Mule runtime server on the same set of resources
- Scaling applications across multiple replicas
- Automated application fail-over
- Application management with Anypoint Runtime Manager
There are two management options for Anypoint Runtime Fabric:
- Runtime Fabric on Self-Managed Kubernetes: a version of Runtime Fabric that you install on an existing Kubernetes environment that you operate and manage. This version supports Amazon Elastic Kubernetes Service (Amazon EKS), Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS), and Google Kubernetes Engine (GKE)
- Runtime Fabric on VMs / Bare Metal: a version of Runtime Fabric where MuleSoft provides required software infrastructure components, including Docker and Kubernetes. You install this version on virtual machines that you operate and manage
Q21. Explain Anypoint Visualizer.
Anypoint Visualizer displays views of different aspects of an application network graph. You can use the graph to explore your application network. Use cases for Anypoint Visualizer include architectural review, troubleshooting, and policy compliance.
Anypoint Visualizer provides a real-time, graphical representation of the APIs, and Mule applications that are running and discoverable. It also displays third-party systems that are invoked by a Mule API, proxy, or application within your application network. The data displayed in the graph is dynamically updated and does not require prior configuration. Additionally, the data displayed is secure, as only users with the proper permissions can view the application network graph.
Q22. Explain Anypoint Service Mesh.
Anypoint Service Mesh enables you to extend your microservices network by including your non-MuleSoft applications into the Anypoint Platform sphere. You can then manage and secure your application network, including your non-Mule applications, seamlessly from a single pane.
Your non-MuleSoft microservices might be written using different languages and platforms, or might be deployed in different environments. To alleviate issues arising from differences in these microservices, Anypoint Service Mesh ensures the following application management advantages:
- Provides resilient service-to-service communication using zero-trust policies to handle traffic control, fault tolerance and load balancing
- Extends MuleSoft API Management capabilities to any non-Mule service, with policies, security and analytics all applied directly from Anypoint Platform
- Amplifies reuse of services with discovery of non-Mule services within Exchange, available for use in future projects
With Anypoint API Community Manager, you can build and operate communities around your APIs for developers and partners, both inside and outside of your organization, who write applications that use your APIs.
Q23. What is API Community Manager?
API Community Manager is powered by Salesforce Experience Cloud and provides customization, branding, marketing, and engagement capabilities to serve the different needs of your developer audiences. Use API Community Manager for rich presentation of APIs cataloged in Anypoint Exchange, and to manage client applications, API access credentials, and consumption metrics.
Q24. What is API Functional Monitoring?
API Functional Monitoring is a framework for assuring the quality and reliability of public and private APIs that are being used in application networks. Public APIs are APIs deployed are accessible by anyone. Private APIs are APIs deployed in Anypoint Virtual Private Cloud in CloudHub and accessible only to people who are in your private network.
The API Functional Monitoring solution enables developers and operators to perform consistent testing of the functional behavior and performance of their APIs, throughout the API lifecycle, in testing and production environments.
The solution helps you carry out the following tasks:
- White-box testing: This type of testing validates the behavior of individual APIs against the understanding of how their internals work. As part of this type of testing, you mock and simulate dependencies (for example, back-end systems and other APIs)
- Black-box testing: This type of testing validates the overall behavior of an API and its real/live dependencies as a whole, based purely on inputs and outputs (i.e. without knowing or altering the API internals – no simulation or mocking)
- Runtime monitoring: This type of monitoring ensures that deployed APIs are operating within expected performance in production environments. It makes use of behavioral test cases that use real inputs and expected outputs, and exercise dependencies, as in black-box testing
Q25. What is Anypoint Partner Manager?
Anypoint Partner Manager enables you to perform bidirectional Business-to-Business (B2B) message exchanges using APIs and Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) formats, and to conduct business transactions such as buying and selling products with your partners. Transactions are typically transmitted over transports such as HTTPS and SFTP, and exchanges such as AS2. Partner Manager supports X12, JSON, and XML message formats.
You can use Anypoint Partner Manager to:
- Perform technical onboarding of your partners
- Set up, manage, and monitor business message flows between your systems and your trading partners’ systems
Track and report on business transactions to achieve greater operational efficiency in B2B transactions.
- View meta information, validation errors, and all messages included with each transmission payload.
Transmission payloads can contain one or more business messages
Q26. Explain MuleSoft Accelerators for Salesforce Clouds.
MuleSoft Accelerators for Salesforce Clouds enable companies to implement Salesforce integrations faster. These solutions include out-of-the-box APIs, connectors, and integration templates that help unlock critical data from external systems such as SAP, ServiceNow, and Jira; all while guiding you to adopt best practices synthesized from thousands of customer implementations. Also includes access to common services such as logging, notification, and scheduling.
MuleSoft Accelerators for Salesforce Clouds consists of:
- MuleSoft Accelerator for Salesforce Service Cloud – Provides service agents with direct access to critical data they need to service customers, all within Salesforce Service Cloud. Service agents will be able to see real-time order history and order status information, as well as the ability to access critical systems to route any issues that may occur.
- MuleSoft Accelerator for Salesforce Commerce Cloud – Power up the shopping experience for your consumers by seamlessly connecting your customer, product, and inventory data in real-time across all systems and channels. This accelerator also gives you the ability to search for product deltas, search for inventory availability in SAP, and sync orders to OMS.
Q27. What are the benefits of API-led connectivity?
A methodical way to connect applications, data, and devices through reusable and purposeful APIs instead of point-to-point integration. Some of the key benefits of API-led connectivity are:
- Clear contracts between systems
- Visibility and security
- Availability and resiliency
To implement API-led connectivity MuleSoft recommends building and organizing APIs into three broad categories.
- System APIs – handle the minutiae of connecting to systems (think databases) such that users are insulated from any changes
- Process APIs – shape data across System APIs, with the intent of modeling business needs and processes, to break down technology silos and make data more consumable
- Experience APIs – reconfigure this data so that it is most easily consumed by its intended audience through apps and devices. APIs at this level are created with reusability in mind, without a dependence on the source systems from which that data originates.
Q28. What is Anypoint Enterprise Security?
Anypoint Enterprise Security is a collection of security features that enforce secure access to information in Mule applications. This suite of security features provides various methods for applying security to Mule Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) implementations and Web services. The following security features bridge gaps between trust boundaries in applications:
- Mule Secure Token Service (STS) Oauth 2.0 Provider
- Mule Credentials Vault
- Mule Message Encryption Processor
- Mule Digital Signature Processor
- Mule Filter Processor
- Mule CRC32 Processor
Q29. What is Mule Secure Token Service?
Mule Secure Token Service is to apply Oauth 2.0 to Web service provider in order to:
- grant consumers of Web service limited access to secure data
- avoid disclosing an end user’s access credentials to a Web service consumer
- retain the authority to revoke the consumer’s access to an end user’s secure data at any time
Q30. What is Mule Credentials Vault?
Mule Credentials Vault can be used to encrypt data in a
.properties file. The properties file in Mule stores data as key-value pairs which may contain information such as usernames, first and last names, and credit card numbers. A Mule application may access this data as it processes messages, for example, to acquire login credentials for an external Web service.
Q31. What is Mule Message Encryption Processor?
Mule Message Encryption Processor can be added to a flow to change the content of a message so that it becomes unreadable by unauthorized entities. Mule can encrypt the entire payload of a message or specific parts of the payload, according to security requirements, using one of the following three Encryption Strategies:
- JCE Encryptor – encrypts stream, byte or string
- XML Encryptor – encrypts string, individual fields using xpath expressions
- PGP Encryptor – encrypts stream, byte or string, applies tighter security, increases processing load (relative to JCE and XML)
Q32. What is Mule Digital Signature Processor?
The Mule Digital Signature Processor adds a digital signature to a message payload, or part of the payload, to prove the identity of the message’s sender. Mule can also verify a signature on a message it receives to confirm the authenticity of the message’s sender. To sign or verify the signature of a message, Mule uses one of the following two Digital Signature Strategies:
- JCE Signer – sign a message payload, or part of a payload, using a key and algorithm
- XML Signer – sign a message payload, or part of a payload, using a keystore
Q33. What is Anypoint Filter Processor?
Generally positioned immediately after an inbound connector in a Mule flow, the Anypoint Filter Processor evaluates two message properties, and rejects the message if the values fall outside of its configured parameters. The properties that are evaluated are:
- IP address – If the IP address of a message falls outside the filter’s configured IP address range, Mule does not process the message
- Creation timestamps – Where the message’s creation date and time fall outside the filter’s configured acceptable lifespan (that is, the message is older than expected), Mule does not process the message
Q34. What is Mule CRC32 Processor?
Mule can apply a cyclic redundancy check (CRC) to messages to ensure integrity. The CRC32 processor acts as an enricher to generate a checksum to a message when it enters a system, then act as a filter to verify the checksum when the message leaves the system. If the entry and exit values do not match, CRC terminates the message’s processing.
The CRC32 processor allows the user to verify that a message remains intact between a sender and a receiver. Because it does not itself provide encryption or append a signature to the message, you can use it in conjunction with other security features.
This article will be updated soon, please come back for more MuleSoft Interview Questions.
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The Thumbnail Story
The thumbnail used in this article was shot by me at Double Arch, Arches National Park, Moab, Utah. The Double Arch trail (0.5 mi/0.8 km roundtrip) is a relatively flat, gravel-surfaced path which leads to the base of two huge arching spans. Double Arch is the tallest (112 ft/34 m) and second-longest (144 ft/44 m) arch in the park.